How Light Can Transform 3D Renders Of Your Property
by Nabamita Sinha Real Estate 13 January 2024
Lighting is one of the most important elements for creating realistic and appealing 3D-rendered scenes. The interplay between light sources, materials, and the environment has a huge impact on the final look, mood, and quality of a 3D render.
Getting the lighting right can be the difference between a CGI image that looks believable and integrated, versus one that looks synthetic or jarring.
In real-time and pre-rendered 3D graphics, there are a variety of techniques available for simulating lighting. Some common methods include:
Local lights are isolated light sources that directly illuminate nearby surfaces in a scene. They emulate real-world lights and behave independently from the rest of the lighting environment.
The three main types of local lights are:
- – Point lights – Omnidirectional light emitted from a single point, like a light bulb. Light intensity diminishes based on distance from the point. Useful for lamps, car headlights, etc.
- – Spotlights – Directional cone of light originating from a point, like a flashlight. Can control the angle of the cone and intensity falloff at the edges. Good for mimicking spotlights.
- – Directional lights – Parallel rays of light coming from a distant source, like the sun. Intensity is uniform regardless of distance. Mimics distant sunlight or moonlight.
Local lighting is fundamental to 3D rendering scenes. It establishes forms, casts shadows to give objects depth and shape, and sets the tone. Point and spotlights are more realistic as their intensity falls off with distance. Directional lights are more simplistic and uniform.
Global illumination is a group of techniques used in 3D graphics to simulate the complex ways that light bounces around a scene. It takes into account not just direct light from sources, but how light interreflects on different objects and surfaces. The key effects made possible by global illumination include:
- – Indirect lighting – Surfaces illuminated by bounced light rather than direct light sources. This fills in shadowed areas and corners, making lighting more natural.
- – Color bleeding – Surfaces reflecting the colors of other nearby surfaces. For example, a red wall reflects onto a white wall near it.
- – Caustics – Focused points of light that occur when light concentrates after reflecting or refracting. Seen often as shimmering water caustics at the bottom of a pool.
- – Realistic shadows – Accounts for light bleeding into shadowed areas and penumbras from partial occlusion. Eliminates harsh shadow cutoffs.
Global illumination unifies the lighting of a whole scene. Some techniques used to calculate it include ray tracing, radiosity, photon mapping, and irradiance caching. Producing global illumination effects can be computationally heavy, often requiring pre-calculation.
Image-based lighting (IBL) is a technique for realistic lighting and reflections that uses high dynamic range (HDR) images captured from the real world. It allows artists from 3D rendering companies to base the lighting of their CGI scenes on real-world environments.
The process involves:
- – Capturing HDR photos of a real-world environment using a special HDR camera rig. This captures lighting details not visible in standard images.
- – Converting the HDR photos into lighting maps like reflection cube maps, irradiance maps, and sky maps.
- – Importing these maps into 3D software and using them to light and reflect on CGI models and scenes.
IBL provides very realistic ambient lighting, reflections, and indirect illumination. Using a sky map for the distant background, reflection cube maps for mirror-like reflections, and irradiance maps for diffuse lighting.
Since the image-based lighting comes from real environments, the consistency and accuracy of the lighting are very high. This grounds even CGI models in realism. The environments can be captured to match the desired mood and lighting style.
IBL does have some limitations. It usually requires manually captured environments vs procedurally generated lighting. Extremely complex specular materials may require tweaking to look right under IBL. But overall, it provides unparalleled realism compared to purely simulated lighting.
Dynamic lighting refers to lighting that can change and move during an animated scene, as opposed to being baked in. This allows the lighting to respond to events, simulate real-time changes, and alter the mood of a scene.
Some examples of dynamic lighting include:
- – Moving light sources – Lights that move, rotate, or travel through an environment, casting light and shadows in changing patterns. Like a flashlight beam moving along a wall.
- – Flickering lights – Simulating bulbs that flicker, surge, or burst can increase realism. Reference video footage to match realistic irregular patterns.
- – Day/night cycles – Rotating directional lights to simulate the passage of time from day to night. Sunrise and sunset provide dramatic lighting changes.
- – Muzzle flashes/Explosions – Quick bursts of bright flashing lights to punctuate action beats and explosions. Reference real-world footage for accurate lighting intensity and color.
- – Environment reactions – Lights that automatically react to things like bullets hitting, fires starting, lightning strikes, etc. to heighten the drama.
- – Parametric/procedural lights – Lights generated procedurally and modulated by parameters like sound, vibration, speed, etc. Allows infinite variation.
The key to believable dynamic lighting is respecting physics and how lights would realistically behave. Avoid arbitrary or unrealistic changes for purely stylistic reasons – ground dynamic lighting in logical motivations for the best realism.
Volumetric lighting refers to lighting techniques that simulate the way light scatters and beams through participating media in the air and atmosphere. It adds depth, texture, and realism to scenes by showing how light interacts with fog, smoke, dust, and other atmospheric effects.
Some common volumetric lighting effects include:
- – Crepuscular rays – Beams of light filtering through clouds, trees, or windows. Also known as “god rays.”
- – Fog and dust – Directional beams or cones of light shining through fog or particle effects. Scattering occurs based on density.
- – Atmospheric haze – Light dimming and taking on bluer tones at a distance to simulate air’s effect over large spaces.
- – Clouds – Bright, diffuse lighting and shadows within sculpted 3D cloud formations.
- – Light shafts – Columns of light visible when bright light sources intersect floating particles.
Volumetric lighting effects can be costly to calculate. Often they are pre-rendered and used as 2D textures or with tricks like light probes. But when done well, they add drama, realism, and visual interest to both realistic and stylized 3D scenes. Ray marching through dense voxel grids can capture finer effects.
In conclusion, lighting is a foundational aspect of crafting realistic and appealing 3D-rendered scenes. The various techniques for simulating lighting effects each have their own strengths and purposes. Local lights provide direct illumination, while global illumination creates realistic bounce lighting.
Image-based lighting leverages real-world environments for accuracy, and dynamic lighting enhances animations and mood. Volumetric effects add depth and interest. By thoughtfully combining the right lighting techniques, 3D artists can bring their scenes to life, establish the desired aesthetic and atmosphere, and enhance the believability of the final rendered imagery. Proper use of light in CGI is key for transporting viewers into the scene and suspending disbelief.